There are many reasons that nephrotic syndrome can occur, including genetics, infection, and the presence of certain medications. While there is no proven cure for this condition, early detection can reduce its severity and prevent complications. There are a number of causes of nephrotic syndrome, including diet, genetics, and some medicines. To learn more about the symptoms of nephrotic syndrome, read on.
The earliest sign of nephrotic syndrome in children is swelling of the face and body. In adults, it is often accompanied by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy. In African ancestry populations, the most common cause is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In the third trimester of pregnancy, patients may develop nephrotic-range proteinuria, which can worsen any preexisting condition.
Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk of thromboembolism, which is a potentially life-threatening complication. Thrombosis is a clot that forms in the blood stream, obstructing blood flow. Thrombosis can develop in both veins and arteries, blocking blood flow to vital organs. In these cases, thrombolytic therapy may be necessary to restore renal function.
The most important clinical feature of nephrotic syndrome is edema, which is characterized by palpable swelling. This swelling occurs because of accumulation of fluid in the interstitial fluid compartment. In children with primary minimal change disease, massive edema occurs, which serves as the main clinical justification for the use of diuretics. Additionally, in patients with nephrotic syndrome, selective loss of large amounts of albumin in the urine causes hypoalbuminemia. In addition, decreased plasma oncotic pressure promotes fluid sequestration. The increased Na+ also triggers fluid retention, which is necessary to prevent an underfill state.